Civil litigation refers to the process of resolving disputes between individuals, organizations, or entities, (including the government) through the court system. This process involves a series of steps that can be lengthy and complex, often involving the services of attorneys, expert witnesses, and other legal professionals.

Civil lawsuits generally proceed through distinct steps: pleadings, discovery, summary judgment, trial, and possibly an appeal. However, unlike criminal proceedings, parties can halt this process by voluntarily settling at any time. Understanding the civil litigation process can help individuals navigate the legal system and achieve a successful outcome.


Each party in a lawsuit files initial documents, known as “pleadings.” The pleadings explain each party’s side of the dispute, including factual information and legal arguments.

The Complaint

The litigation stage commences when the plaintiff files a complaint with the court and formally delivers a copy to the defendant. The complaint describes what the defendant did (or failed to do) that caused harm to the plaintiff. The complaint will also state the legal basis for holding the defendant responsible for that harm.

The Answer

The defendant is given a specific amount of time to file an answer to the complaint. The answer provides the defendant’s side of the dispute. The defendant may also file counterclaims against the plaintiff, which asserts their own claims against the plaintiff alleging that the plaintiff has harmed the defendant and should be held liable for that harm. In certain cases, the plaintiff responds to the defendant’s answer or counterclaims by filing a reply.

Other times, a party may request that the other party clarify or correct defects in its factual allegations or legal argument or may request that the court dismiss parts of or the entire lawsuit. This is accomplished by filing a Motion to Dismiss the Complaint. A Motion to Dismiss can be filed on several grounds. If a Motion to Dismiss is filed, the party that it is filed against has the chance to respond prior to the Court issuing a ruling.

Once the initial documents known as Pleadings have been filed and decided upon, if applicable, the case moves to the next phase – Discovery.


The discovery process is an important part of civil litigation, where both parties are required to provide information and evidence relevant to the case. It allows both sides to build their case by obtaining the necessary information and evidence from the other party, and to prevent surprises during the trial. It allows for both sides to fully understand what evidence the other side has and to evaluate the merits of the case based on that evidence.

This process can be lengthy and complicated, but understanding it is critical to the success of any civil litigation case. Discovery is usually the longest portion of the lawsuit. Discovery beings shortly after the pleadings stage and is the primary method by which parties gather relevant information from each other or third parties.

The discovery process typically includes several different methods of gathering information and evidence, including:



Depositions involve the taking of oral testimony from witnesses or parties involved in the case. This process is done under oath, and the testimony is recorded by a court reporter. The opposing party has the opportunity to ask questions, and the witness or party being deposed must answer truthfully.



Interrogatories are written questions submitted to the opposing party. The party receiving the interrogatories must respond in writing under oath. Interrogatories can cover a wide range of topics, from the facts of the case to the opposing party’s legal theories.


Requests for Production

Requests for production are written requests asking for specific documents, such as contracts, emails, or other materials that may be relevant to the case. The opposing party is required to produce these documents, as long as they are relevant and not privileged information.


Requests for Admissions

Requests for admissions are written statements that one party asks the other party to admit or deny. These requests can be used to establish certain facts in the case or to narrow down the issues to be decided at trial.


Physical or Mental Examinations

In some cases, one party may request that the other party submit to a physical or mental examination by a medical expert. This type of examination is typically only permitted if it is relevant to the case and if there is good cause for the examination.

The discovery process can be time-consuming and expensive, as it requires both parties to gather and produce large amounts of information and evidence. However, it is an essential part of civil litigation and can significantly impact the outcome of a case.

There are also rules and procedures that govern the discovery process. For example, parties may be required to meet and confer to attempt to resolve discovery disputes before bringing them to the court’s attention. Additionally, parties must comply with deadlines and other requirements set by the court. This is typically handles mostly by the attorneys handling the case.

There is no doubt that the discovery process is a crucial component of civil litigation. It allows both parties to gather the necessary information and evidence to build their case, and to prevent surprises during the trial. While the process can be lengthy and expensive, it is essential for achieving a successful outcome in civil litigation cases. It is important for parties to work with experienced legal professionals who can guide them through the discovery process and ensure that all rules and procedures are followed.

Expert Witnesses

Expert witnesses are individuals who possess specialized knowledge, training, or experience that allows them to offer opinions in court regarding scientific, technical, or other complex subject matters. In civil litigation, expert witnesses can play a crucial role in helping the parties and the court understand and interpret complex issues that may be central to the case.

What Expert Witnesses Provide

Expert witnesses can provide valuable insight into complex issues that are relevant to a particular case. For example, in a medical malpractice case, an expert witness with experience in the relevant medical field can offer opinions on the standard of care that should have been provided and whether the defendant’s actions met or fell below that standard. In a wrongful termination case, an expert witness with technical knowledge can offer opinions on the similarities and differences between the allegedly discriminatory conduct and how it affected the plaintiff emotionally or physically.

The role of expert witnesses in civil litigation is to assist the trier of fact in understanding and analyzing technical or scientific information that is relevant to the case. An expert witness can be very persuasive. The trier of fact can be a judge or a jury, depending on the type of case and the jurisdiction in which it is being heard. Expert witnesses can provide opinions on issues such as causation, damages, standard of care, and industry practices, among others. The goal is to help the trier of fact make an informed decision based on the evidence presented.

How Expert Witnesses are Selected

Expert witnesses are typically retained by one of the parties in the case. The selection of an expert witness is often based on the individual’s education, training, experience, and reputation in their field. It is important that expert witnesses are objective and unbiased in their opinions, and they should not have any conflicts of interest that could affect their testimony, nor should they agree to be paid to render a specific opinion if they do not agree with it and/or the evidence does not support it

Expert witnesses are often required to submit a written report detailing their opinions and the basis for those opinions. The report is provided to the opposing party, and the expert witness may be deposed by the opposing party to further explore their opinions and the basis for those opinions.

Impact of Expert Witnesses on the Outcome of a Case

The testimony of expert witnesses can have a significant impact on the outcome of a case. In some cases, expert testimony can be the deciding factor in the case. The trier of fact may rely heavily on the opinions of expert witnesses when making their decision. Expert witnesses can also be challenged by the opposing party during cross-examination. The opposing party may attempt to discredit the expert’s opinions or challenge the basis for those opinions.


Before trial, the parties may use motions to ask the court to rule or act. Motions usually pertain to law or facts in the case, but sometimes they seek clarification or resolution of procedural disputes between the parties. Motions are commonly used to request relief from the court in a variety of ways. A motion is essentially a request made by one party to the court asking for a specific action or order.

Types of Motions in Civil Litigation

1. Motion to Dismiss

Before trial, the parties may use motions to ask the court to rule or act. Motions usually pertain to law or facts in the case, but sometimes they seek clarification or resolution of procedural disputes between the parties. Motions are commonly used to request relief from the court in a variety of ways. A motion is essentially a request made by one party to the court asking for a specific action or order.

2. Motion for Summary Judgment

A motion for summary judgment is filed by either party to request that the court make a decision on the case without a trial. This motion is filed before trial and must be ruled upon before trial can commence. It is filed after the discovery process has been completed.

3. Motion for Default Judgment

A motion for default judgment is filed by a plaintiff when the defendant fails to respond to a lawsuit within the required time frame. This motion requests that the court enter judgment in favor of the plaintiff because of the defendant’s failure to respond to the lawsuit in a timely manner.

4. Motion for Preliminary Injunction

A motion for preliminary injunction is filed by a party requesting that the court issue an order to prevent some sort of harm before the case is resolved. Often, these motions are filed in non-compete cases where one party, typically an employer, alleges that a former employee is violating a non-compete or non-solicitation agreement.

5. Motion for Protective Order

A motion for protective order is filed by a party to request that the court protect them from certain discovery requests, such as a request for confidential information or overly burdensome requests. These motions are common and are typically agreed upon by the parties to protect confidential documents, like business records or medical records.

6. Motion for Sanctions

A motion for sanctions is filed by a party when the other party violates a court order or engages in bad faith conduct. The purpose of this motion is to request that the court impose a penalty on the offending party.

Purpose of Motions in Civil Litigation

Motions serve a variety of purposes in civil litigation, including:

1. Resolving legal issues

Motions can be used to resolve legal issues that arise during a case, such as whether a case should be dismissed or whether summary judgment should be granted.

3. Resolving disputes

Motions can be used to resolve disputes between the parties, such as when a motion for sanctions is filed or a motion involving withholding discovery is filed

2. Streamlining the process

Motions can be used to streamline the litigation process, such as when a motion for summary judgment is granted and a trial is no longer necessary.

4. Protecting parties

Motions can be used to protect parties from harm, such as when a motion for a preliminary injunction is filed to prevent a party from taking harmful action before the case is resolved.


The duration of a lawsuit depends on the issues of the case, the amount of discovery to be conducted, and court scheduling and availability. The parties, guided by the rules of court, usually decide the timing of discovery. Trial dates are set by the court. Timing and scheduling differ between state and federal courts.


Immediately before trial, each party provides to the judge a document that outlines the arguments and evidence to be used at trial. It typically includes a list of witnesses, a list of exhibits (documents) to be presented at trial and any outstanding factual or legal issues that need to be decided by the court before trial can commence. This document is typically called a pretrial statement.

Some trials, known as “bench trials,” do not involve a jury and are decided by the judge alone. Other trials are jury trials. If a jury trial is necessary, both parties question and attempt to select potential jurors during the process known as “voir dire.” When the trial begins, each party presents its theory of the case in an opening statement. Then, the parties present evidence. Each party may call witnesses or introduce documents and exhibits in support of its arguments. After each witness is called and questioned, the opposing party has an opportunity to cross-examine the witness. The plaintiff presents evidence first, followed by the defendant.

On some occasions, the plaintiff is allowed to present additional evidence, called rebuttal evidence, after the defendant has finished presenting its case. After all of the evidence has been presented, the parties give their closing arguments. After closing arguments, the court instructs the jury on the law to be applied to the evidence. The jury then deliberates and reaches a decision or verdict. The length of the trial varies depending on the complexity of the case, but it can range from a few days to several weeks.


Either party may challenge a jury’s verdict. Errors of law committed by the trial court or a juryare commonly cited reasons used to challenge a verdict. A motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict (JNOV) asks the court to disregard the jury’s verdict and enter a different decision. Alternatively, a motion for a new trial asks the court to discard the jury’s verdict altogether and order a new trial of the case.

It is uncommon for these motions to be granted, but it happens occasionally.

Costs and Fees

The party who prevails at trial will usually file a motion requesting the court to order the losing party to pay the prevailing party’s costs to prosecute or defend the case. Recoverable costs are defined by rule, statute, or private agreement. It is uncommon that the recovered expenses will cover all out-of-pocket costs a party incurred during the course of a lawsuit. Depending on the statute or type of legal claim, certain statutes allow the prevailing party to seek reimbursement of its attorneys’ fees from the losing party.


After the verdict is reached, either party may file an appeal. The appellate court will review the case to determine whether the trial court made any legal errors that affected the outcome of the case. The appellate process can take several months or even years. During an appeal, a party asks a higher court to review the trial court proceedings. Both parties present their arguments in briefs, which are submitted to the appellate court along with the record of evidence from the trial court. Typically, an appellate court only reviews a case for legal errors. Absent unusual circumstances, the appellate court will typically not review factual evidence or override a jury’s findings of fact. The appellate court will affirm the verdict if it finds no error in the trial court proceeding. However, if there was an error, the appellate court has the ability to reverse the verdict or order the trial court to conduct a new trial.

Alternatives to Litigation

Alternatives to litigation usually save time and expense, but they may not be as advantageous as litigation. The desirability of these alternatives should be evaluated early to allow their timely implementation.


Settlement negotiation is the process of parties attempting to resolve their dispute by negotiating a settlement agreement outside of court. During settlement negotiations, the parties or their attorneys will typically exchange offers and counteroffers until they reach an agreement. Settlement negotiations can occur at any stage of the litigation process, from before a complaint is filed to after a trial has commenced.

Settlement negotiation has several advantages overlitigation. First, it can be a much faster and more cost-effective way to resolve disputes, as parties can avoid the time and expense of a trial. Second, parties have more control over the outcome of the dispute, as they are not bound by the decisions of a judge or jury. Finally, settlement negotiations can allow parties to maintain a more amicable relationship, as they work together to find a mutually beneficial solution.

Settlement guarantees money to our client without the stress, expense and risk of litigation. If a client loses at trial, they get nothing.


Mediation is a voluntary, confidential process in which a neutral third party, known as a mediator, facilitates negotiations between the parties to help them reach a settlement. The mediator does not make decisions or impose solutions on the parties, but instead helps them communicate and identify common interests.

Mediation has several advantages over litigation. First, it can be a less adversarial and confrontational process than traditional litigation, as the parties work together with the mediator to find a solution. Second, mediation can be a faster and more cost-effective way to resolve disputes, as the parties can avoid the time and expense of a trial. Finally, mediation can allow parties to preserve relationships and find creative solutions that may not be available through traditional litigation.


Arbitration is a process in which a neutral third party, known as an arbitrator, hears evidence and arguments from both sides and makes a binding decision on the dispute. Arbitration is similar to a trial, but it is typically faster and less formal than traditional litigation.
Arbitration is not the preferred process to resolve a dispute but if an employee signs an arbitration agreement that is enforceable, arbitration must be pursued.

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